2024 π Daylatest newsbuy art
Safe, fallen down this way, I want to be just what I am.Cocteau Twinssafe at lastmore quotes
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buy artwork Snellen eye chart — nautical flags by Martin Krzywinski
VISIONS OF TYPE | Put my typographical posters on your wall. (buy artwork / see all my art)
The 2022 π Day art is a music album composed by Greg Coles for solo piano. It tells stories from the very beginning (314…) to the very (known) end of π (…264) as well as math (Wallis Product) and math jokes (Feynman Point), repetition (nn) and zeroes (null).
See how much you can see with my modern interpretation of the Snellen eye chart. Test yourself with mathematical operators, physical constants, chemical elements and nautical flags. There's even a version for the sightless.
The charts use my SnellenMK optotype font.

Visions of Type

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The last lines of the plays of William Shakespare by Martin Krzywinski
THE FINAL WORDS | The last lines of all Shakespeare plays. (buy artwork / see all my art)

the type of man with the best words

This section celebrates the words of William Shakespeare.

If you love letters in just the right combination, these pages, the art is for you. If you like to delve into the words yourself, use my plain-text annotated version of all his plays.

The posters are available for purchase.

1 · Last Lines of All 37 Plays of Shakespeare

I've decided to remove all punctuation except ampersands in the titles of plays. Because who doesn't love ampersands?

The last line of Henry IV Part II is the one by Lancaster ("Come, will you hence?") instead of the Dancer's epilogue line ("before you; but, indeed, to pray for the queen.").

And now let's go hand in hand, not one before another.
— Dromio of Ephesus (A Comedy of Errors)

And Robin shall restore amends.
— Puck (A Midsummer Night's Dream)

We were dissever'd: hastily lead away.
— Leontes (A Winter's Tale)

Your gentle hands lend us, and take our hearts.
— King (All's Well That Ends Well)

High order in this great solemnity.
— Octavius Caesar (Antony and Cleopatra)

kind offer, when I make curtsy, bid me farewell.
— Rosalind (As You Like It)

Yet he shall have a noble memory. Assist.
— Aufidius (Coriolanus)

Ere bloody hands were wash'd, with such a peace.
— Cymbeline (Cymbeline)

Go, bid the soldiers shoot.
— Prince fortinbras (Hamlet)

Let us not leave till all our own be won.
— King Henry IV (Henry IV Part I)

Come, will you hence?
— Lancaster (Henry IV Part II)

In your fair minds let this acceptance take.
— Chorus (Henry V)

If they hold when their ladies bid 'em clap.
— King Henry VIII (Henry VIII)

But I will rule both her, the king and realm.
— Suffolk (Henry VI Part I)

And more such days as these to us befall!
— Warwick (Henry VI Part II)

For here, I hope, begins our lasting joy.
— King Edward IV (Henry VI Part III)

To part the glories of this happy day.
— Octavius (Julius Caesar)

If England to itself do rest but true.
— Bastard (King John)

Shall never see so much, nor live so long.
— Albany (King Lear)

Apollo. You that way: we this way.
— Adriano de Armado (Love's Labours Lost)

Whom we invite to see us crown'd at Scone.
— Malcolm (Macbeth)

What's yet behind, that's meet you all should know.
— Duke Vincentio (Measure for Measure)

So sore as keeping safe Nerissa's ring.
— Gratiano (Merchant of Venice)

For he tonight shall lie with Mistress Ford.
— Ford (Merry Wives of Windsor)

Strike up, pipers.
— Benedick (Much Ado About Nothing)

This heavy act with heavy heart relate.
— Lodovico (Othello)

New joy wait on you! Here our play has ending.
— Gower (Pericles)

In weeping after this untimely bier.
— Henry Bolingbroke (Richard II)

That she may long live here, God say amen!
— Richmond (Richard III)

Than this of Juliet and her Romeo.
— Prince (Romeo and Juliet)

'Tis a wonder, by your leave, she will be tamed so.
— Lucentio (Taming of the Shrew)

Let your indulgence set me free.
— Prospero (The Tempest)

Let our drums strike.
— Alcibiades (Timon of Athens)

That like events may ne'er it ruinate.
— Lucius (Titus Andronicus)

And at that time bequeathe you my diseases.
— Pandarus (Troilus and Cressida)

And we'll strive to please you every day.
— Clown (Twelfth Night)

One feast, one house, one mutual happiness.
— Valentine (Two Gentlemen of Verona)


2 · Parsing Shakespeare

Using my plain-text annotated version of all of his plays, pulling out the last lines is trivial at the command line.

# last lines in a play are annotated with -p flag
> grep -w "\-p" shakespeare.all.plays.plain.text.txt | cut -d "|" -f 1,14
A_Comedy_of_Errors | And now let's go hand in hand, not one before another.
A_Midsummer_nights_dream | And Robin shall restore amends.
A_Winters_Tale | We were dissever'd: hastily lead away.
Alls_well_that_ends_well | Your gentle hands lend us, and take our hearts.
Antony_and_Cleopatra | High order in this great solemnity.
As_you_like_it | kind offer, when I make curtsy, bid me farewell.
Coriolanus | Yet he shall have a noble memory. Assist.
Cymbeline | Ere bloody hands were wash'd, with such a peace.
Hamlet | Go, bid the soldiers shoot.
Henry_IV_Part_1 | Let us not leave till all our own be won.
Henry_IV_Part_2 | before you; but, indeed, to pray for the queen.
Henry_V | In your fair minds let this acceptance take.
Henry_VI_Part_1 | But I will rule both her, the king and realm.
Henry_VI_Part_2 | And more such days as these to us befall!
Henry_VI_Part_3 | For here, I hope, begins our lasting joy.
Henry_VIII | If they hold when their ladies bid 'em clap.
Julius_Caesar | To part the glories of this happy day.
King_John | If England to itself do rest but true.
King_Lear | Shall never see so much, nor live so long.
Loves_Labours_Lost | Apollo. You that way: we this way.
Macbeth | Whom we invite to see us crown'd at Scone.
Measure_for_measure | What's yet behind, that's meet you all should know.
Merchant_of_Venice | So sore as keeping safe Nerissa's ring.
Merry_Wives_of_Windsor | For he tonight shall lie with Mistress Ford.
Much_Ado_about_nothing | Strike up, pipers.
Othello | This heavy act with heavy heart relate.
Pericles | New joy wait on you! Here our play has ending.
Richard_II | In weeping after this untimely bier.
Richard_III | That she may long live here, God say amen!
Romeo_and_Juliet | Than this of Juliet and her Romeo.
Taming_of_the_Shrew | 'Tis a wonder, by your leave, she will be tamed so.
The_Tempest | Let your indulgence set me free.
Timon_of_Athens | Let our drums strike.
Titus_Andronicus | That like events may ne'er it ruinate.
Troilus_and_Cressida | And at that time bequeathe you my diseases.
Twelfth_Night | And we'll strive to please you every day.
Two_Gentlemen_of_Verona | One feast, one house, one mutual happiness.
news + thoughts

Nasa to send our human genome discs to the Moon

Sat 23-03-2024

We'd like to say a ‘cosmic hello’: mathematics, culture, palaeontology, art and science, and ... human genomes.

Martin Krzywinski @MKrzywinski mkweb.bcgsc.ca
SANCTUARY PROJECT | A cosmic hello of art, science, and genomes. (details)
Martin Krzywinski @MKrzywinski mkweb.bcgsc.ca
SANCTUARY PROJECT | Benoit Faiveley, founder of the Sanctuary project gives the Sanctuary disc a visual check at CEA LeQ Grenoble (image: Vincent Thomas). (details)
Martin Krzywinski @MKrzywinski mkweb.bcgsc.ca
SANCTUARY PROJECT | Sanctuary team examines the Life disc at INRIA Paris Saclay (image: Benedict Redgrove) (details)

Comparing classifier performance with baselines

Sat 23-03-2024

All animals are equal, but some animals are more equal than others. —George Orwell

This month, we will illustrate the importance of establishing a baseline performance level.

Baselines are typically generated independently for each dataset using very simple models. Their role is to set the minimum level of acceptable performance and help with comparing relative improvements in performance of other models.

Martin Krzywinski @MKrzywinski mkweb.bcgsc.ca
Nature Methods Points of Significance column: Comparing classifier performance with baselines. (read)

Unfortunately, baselines are often overlooked and, in the presence of a class imbalance5, must be established with care.

Megahed, F.M, Chen, Y-J., Jones-Farmer, A., Rigdon, S.E., Krzywinski, M. & Altman, N. (2024) Points of significance: Comparing classifier performance with baselines. Nat. Methods 20.

Happy 2024 π Day—
sunflowers ho!

Sat 09-03-2024

Celebrate π Day (March 14th) and dig into the digit garden. Let's grow something.

Martin Krzywinski @MKrzywinski mkweb.bcgsc.ca
2024 π DAY | A garden of 1,000 digits of π. (details)

How Analyzing Cosmic Nothing Might Explain Everything

Thu 18-01-2024

Huge empty areas of the universe called voids could help solve the greatest mysteries in the cosmos.

My graphic accompanying How Analyzing Cosmic Nothing Might Explain Everything in the January 2024 issue of Scientific American depicts the entire Universe in a two-page spread — full of nothing.

Martin Krzywinski @MKrzywinski mkweb.bcgsc.ca
How Analyzing Cosmic Nothing Might Explain Everything. Text by Michael Lemonick (editor), art direction by Jen Christiansen (Senior Graphics Editor), source: SDSS

The graphic uses the latest data from SDSS 12 and is an update to my Superclusters and Voids poster.

Michael Lemonick (editor) explains on the graphic:

“Regions of relatively empty space called cosmic voids are everywhere in the universe, and scientists believe studying their size, shape and spread across the cosmos could help them understand dark matter, dark energy and other big mysteries.

To use voids in this way, astronomers must map these regions in detail—a project that is just beginning.

Shown here are voids discovered by the Sloan Digital Sky Survey (SDSS), along with a selection of 16 previously named voids. Scientists expect voids to be evenly distributed throughout space—the lack of voids in some regions on the globe simply reflects SDSS’s sky coverage.”

voids

Sofia Contarini, Alice Pisani, Nico Hamaus, Federico Marulli Lauro Moscardini & Marco Baldi (2023) Cosmological Constraints from the BOSS DR12 Void Size Function Astrophysical Journal 953:46.

Nico Hamaus, Alice Pisani, Jin-Ah Choi, Guilhem Lavaux, Benjamin D. Wandelt & Jochen Weller (2020) Journal of Cosmology and Astroparticle Physics 2020:023.

Sloan Digital Sky Survey Data Release 12

constellation figures

Alan MacRobert (Sky & Telescope), Paulina Rowicka/Martin Krzywinski (revisions & Microscopium)

stars

Hoffleit & Warren Jr. (1991) The Bright Star Catalog, 5th Revised Edition (Preliminary Version).

cosmology

H0 = 67.4 km/(Mpc·s), Ωm = 0.315, Ωv = 0.685. Planck collaboration Planck 2018 results. VI. Cosmological parameters (2018).

Error in predictor variables

Tue 02-01-2024

It is the mark of an educated mind to rest satisfied with the degree of precision that the nature of the subject admits and not to seek exactness where only an approximation is possible. —Aristotle

In regression, the predictors are (typically) assumed to have known values that are measured without error.

Practically, however, predictors are often measured with error. This has a profound (but predictable) effect on the estimates of relationships among variables – the so-called “error in variables” problem.

Martin Krzywinski @MKrzywinski mkweb.bcgsc.ca
Nature Methods Points of Significance column: Error in predictor variables. (read)

Error in measuring the predictors is often ignored. In this column, we discuss when ignoring this error is harmless and when it can lead to large bias that can leads us to miss important effects.

Altman, N. & Krzywinski, M. (2024) Points of significance: Error in predictor variables. Nat. Methods 20.

Background reading

Altman, N. & Krzywinski, M. (2015) Points of significance: Simple linear regression. Nat. Methods 12:999–1000.

Lever, J., Krzywinski, M. & Altman, N. (2016) Points of significance: Logistic regression. Nat. Methods 13:541–542 (2016).

Das, K., Krzywinski, M. & Altman, N. (2019) Points of significance: Quantile regression. Nat. Methods 16:451–452.

Martin Krzywinski | contact | Canada's Michael Smith Genome Sciences CentreBC Cancer Research CenterBC CancerPHSA
Google whack “vicissitudinal corporealization”
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