2024 π Daylatest newsbuy art
Love itself became the object of her love.Jonathan Safran Foercount sadnessesmore quotes
very clickable
statistics + data
The Nature Methods Points of View column column offers practical advice in design and data presentation for the busy scientist.
With the publication of Uncertainty and the Management of Epidemics, we celebrate our 50th column! Since 2013, our Nature Methods Points of Significance has been offering crisp explanations and practical suggestions about best practices in statistical analysis and reporting. To all our readers and coauthors: thank you and see you in the next column!

Nature Methods: Points of Significance

Martin Krzywinski @MKrzywinski mkweb.bcgsc.ca
Points of Significance column in Nature Methods. (Launch of Points of Significance)
60 | Megahed, F.M, Chen, Y-J., Jones-Farmer, A., Rigdon, S.E., Krzywinski, M. & Altman, N. (2024) Points of significance: Comparing classifier performance with baselines. Nature Methods.
59 | Altman, N. & Krzywinski, M. (2024) Points of significance: Error in predictor variables. Nature Methods 21
58 | Derry, A., Krzywinski, M. & Altman, N. (2023) Points of significance: Convolutional neural networks. Nature Methods 20:1269–1270
57 | Derry, A., Krzywinski, M. & Altman, N. (2023) Points of significance: Neural network primer. Nature Methods 20:165–167.
56 | Dey, T., Lipsitz, S.R., Cooper, Z., Trinh, Q., Krzywinski, M.& Altman, N. (2022) Points of significance: Regression modelling of time-to-event data with censoring. Nature Methods 19:1513–1515.
55 | Dey, T., Lipsitz, S.R., Cooper, Z., Trinh, Q., Krzywinski, M.& Altman, N. (2022) Points of significance: Survival analysis — time-to-event data and censoring. Nature Methods 19:906–908.
54 | Megahed, F.M, Chen, Y-J., Megahed, A., Ong, Y., Altman, N. & Krzywinski, M. (2021) Points of significance: The class imbalance problem. Nature Methods 18:1270–1272.
53 | Altman, N. & Krzywinski, M. (2021) Points of significance: Graphical assessments of tests and classifiers. Nature Methods 18:840–842
52 | Altman, N. & Krzywinski, M. (2021) Points of significance: Testing for rare conditions. Nature Methods 18:224–225.
51 | Voelkl, B., Würbel, H., Krzywinski, M. & Altman, N. (2021) Points of significance: The standardization fallacy. Nature Methods 18:5–7.
50 | Bjørnstad, O.N., Shea, K., Krzywinski, M. & Altman, N. (2020) Points of significance: Uncertainty and the management of epidemics. Nature Methods 17:867–868.
49 | Bjørnstad, O.N., Shea, K., Krzywinski, M. & Altman, N. (2020) Points of significance: The SEIRS model for infectious disease dynamics. Nature Methods 17:557–558.
48 | Bjørnstad, O.N., Shea, K., Krzywinski, M. & Altman, N. (2020) Points of significance: Modeling infectious epidemics. Nature Methods 17:455–456.
47 | Grewal, J., Krzywinski, M. & Altman, N. (2020) Points of significance: Markov models — training and evaluation of hidden Markov models. Nature Methods 17:121–122.
46 | Grewal, J., Krzywinski, M. & Altman, N. (2019) Points of significance: Hidden Markov models. Nature Methods 16:795–796.
45 | Grewal, J., Krzywinski, M. & Altman, N. (2019) Points of significance: Markov chains. Nature Methods 16:663–664.
44 | Das, K., Krzywinski, M. & Altman, N. (2019) Points of significance: Quantile regression. Nature Methods 16:451–452.
43 | Greco, L., Luta, G., Krzywinski, M. & Altman, N. (2019) Points of significance: Analyzing outliers: Robust methods to the rescue. Nature Methods 16:275–276.
42 | Smucker, B., Krzywinski, M. & Altman, N. (2019) Points of significance: Two-level factorial experiments Nature Methods 16:211–212.
41 | Altman, N. & Krzywinski, M. (2018) Points of significance: Predicting with confidence and tolerance Nature Methods 15:843–844.
40 | Smucker, B., Krzywinski, M. & Altman, N. (2018) Points of significance: Optimal experimental design Nature Methods 15:559–560.
39 | Altman, N. & Krzywinski, M. (2018) Points of significance: Curse(s) of dimensionality Nature Methods 15:299–400.
38 | Bzdok, D., Krzywinski, M. & Altman, N. (2018) Points of significance: Statistics vs machine learning. Nature Methods 15:233–234.
37 | Bzdok, D., Krzywinski, M. & Altman, N. (2018) Points of significance: Machine learning: supervised methods. Nature Methods 15:5–6.
36 | Bzdok, D., Krzywinski, M. & Altman, N. (2017) Points of significance: Machine learning: a primer. Nature Methods 14:1119–1120.
35 | Altman, N. & Krzywinski, M. (2017) Points of significance: Ensemble methods: Bagging and random forests. Nature Methods 14:933–934.
34 | Krzywinski, M. & Altman, N. (2017) Points of significance: Classification and regression trees. Nature Methods 14:757–758.
33 | Lever, J., Krzywinski, M. & Altman, N. (2017) Points of significance: Principal component analysis. Nature Methods 14:641–642.
32 | Altman, N. & Krzywinski, M. (2017) Points of significance: Clustering. Nature Methods 14:545–546.
31 | Altman, N. & Krzywinski, M. (2017) Points of significance: Tabular data. Nature Methods 14:329–330.
30 | Altman, N. & Krzywinski, M. (2017) Points of significance: Interpreting P values. Nature Methods 14:213–214.
29 | Altman, N. & Krzywinski, M. (2017) Points of significance: P values and the search for significance. Nature Methods 14:3–4.
28 | Lever, J., Krzywinski, M. & Altman, N. (2016) Points of significance: Regularization. Nature Methods 13:803–804.
27 | Lever, J., Krzywinski, M. & Altman, N. (2016) Points of significance: Model selection and overfitting. Nature Methods 13:703–704.
26 | Lever, J., Krzywinski, M. & Altman, N. (2016) Points of significance: Classifier evaluation. Nature Methods 13:603–604.
25 | Lever, J., Krzywinski, M. & Altman, N. (2016) Points of significance: Logistic regression. Nature Methods 13:541–542.
24 | Altman, N. & Krzywinski, M. (2016) Points of significance: Regression diagnostics. Nature Methods 13:385–386.
23 | Altman, N. & Krzywinski, M. (2016) Points of significance: Analyzing outliers: Influential or nuisance. Nature Methods 13:281–282.
22 | Krzywinski, M. & Altman, N. (2015) Points of significance: Multiple linear regression. Nature Methods 12:1103–1104.
21 | Altman, N. & Krzywinski, M. (2015) Points of significance: Simple linear regression. Nature Methods 12:999–1000.
20 | Altman, N. & Krzywinski, M. (2015) Points of significance: Association, correlation and causation. Nature Methods 12:899–900.
19 | Puga, J.L, Krzywinski, M. & Altman, N. (2015) Points of significance: Bayesian networks. Nature Methods 12:799–800.
18 | Kulesa, A., Krzywinski, M., Blainey, P. & Altman, N. (2015) Points of significance: Sampling distributions and the bootstrap. Nature Methods 12:477–478.
17 | Puga, J.L, Krzywinski, M. & Altman, N. (2015) Points of significance: Bayesian statistics. Nature Methods 12:277–278.
16 | Puga, J.L, Krzywinski, M. & Altman, N. (2015) Points of significance: Bayes' theorem. Nature Methods 12:277–278.
15 | Altman, N. & Krzywinski, M. (2015) Points of significance: Split plot design. Nature Methods 12:165–166.
14 | Altman, N. & Krzywinski, M. (2015) Points of significance: Sources of variation. Nature Methods 12:5–6.
13 | Krzywinski, M., Altman, N. (2014) Points of significance: Two factor designs. Nature Methods 11:1187–1188.
12 | Krzywinski, M., Altman, N. & Blainey, P. (2014) Points of significance: Nested designs. Nature Methods 11:977–978.
11 | Blainey, P., Krzywinski, M. & Altman, N. (2014) Points of significance: Replication. Nature Methods 11:879–880.
10 | Krzywinski, M. & Altman, N. (2014) Points of significance: Analysis of variance (ANOVA) and blocking. Nature Methods 11:699–700.
9 | Krzywinski, M. & Altman, N. (2014) Points of significance: Designing comparative experiments. Nature Methods 11:597–598.
8 | Krzywinski, M. & Altman, N. (2014) Points of significance: Non-parametric tests. Nature Methods 11:467–468.
7 | Krzywinski, M. & Altman, N. (2014) Points of significance: Comparing samples — Part II — Multiple testing. Nature Methods 11:355–356.
6 | Krzywinski, M. & Altman, N. (2014) Points of significance: Comparing samples — Part I — t–tests. Nature Methods 11:215–216.
5 | Krzywinski, M. & Altman, N. (2014) Points of significance: Visualizing samples with box plots. Nature Methods 11:119–120.
4 | Krzywinski, M. & Altman, N. (2013) Points of significance: Power and sample size. Nature Methods 10:1139–1140.
3 | Krzywinski, M. & Altman, N. (2013) Points of significance: Significance, P values and t–tests. Nature Methods 10:1041–1042.
2 | Krzywinski, M. & Altman, N. (2013) Points of significance: Error bars. Nature Methods 10:921–922.
1 | Krzywinski, M. & Altman, N. (2013) Points of significance: Importance of being uncertain. Nature Methods 10:809–810.
news + thoughts

Nasa to send our human genome discs to the Moon

Sat 23-03-2024

We'd like to say a ‘cosmic hello’: mathematics, culture, palaeontology, art and science, and ... human genomes.

Martin Krzywinski @MKrzywinski mkweb.bcgsc.ca
SANCTUARY PROJECT | A cosmic hello of art, science, and genomes. (details)
Martin Krzywinski @MKrzywinski mkweb.bcgsc.ca
SANCTUARY PROJECT | Benoit Faiveley, founder of the Sanctuary project gives the Sanctuary disc a visual check at CEA LeQ Grenoble (image: Vincent Thomas). (details)
Martin Krzywinski @MKrzywinski mkweb.bcgsc.ca
SANCTUARY PROJECT | Sanctuary team examines the Life disc at INRIA Paris Saclay (image: Benedict Redgrove) (details)

Comparing classifier performance with baselines

Sat 23-03-2024

All animals are equal, but some animals are more equal than others. —George Orwell

This month, we will illustrate the importance of establishing a baseline performance level.

Baselines are typically generated independently for each dataset using very simple models. Their role is to set the minimum level of acceptable performance and help with comparing relative improvements in performance of other models.

Martin Krzywinski @MKrzywinski mkweb.bcgsc.ca
Nature Methods Points of Significance column: Comparing classifier performance with baselines. (read)

Unfortunately, baselines are often overlooked and, in the presence of a class imbalance5, must be established with care.

Megahed, F.M, Chen, Y-J., Jones-Farmer, A., Rigdon, S.E., Krzywinski, M. & Altman, N. (2024) Points of significance: Comparing classifier performance with baselines. Nat. Methods 20.

Happy 2024 π Day—
sunflowers ho!

Sat 09-03-2024

Celebrate π Day (March 14th) and dig into the digit garden. Let's grow something.

Martin Krzywinski @MKrzywinski mkweb.bcgsc.ca
2024 π DAY | A garden of 1,000 digits of π. (details)

How Analyzing Cosmic Nothing Might Explain Everything

Thu 18-01-2024

Huge empty areas of the universe called voids could help solve the greatest mysteries in the cosmos.

My graphic accompanying How Analyzing Cosmic Nothing Might Explain Everything in the January 2024 issue of Scientific American depicts the entire Universe in a two-page spread — full of nothing.

Martin Krzywinski @MKrzywinski mkweb.bcgsc.ca
How Analyzing Cosmic Nothing Might Explain Everything. Text by Michael Lemonick (editor), art direction by Jen Christiansen (Senior Graphics Editor), source: SDSS

The graphic uses the latest data from SDSS 12 and is an update to my Superclusters and Voids poster.

Michael Lemonick (editor) explains on the graphic:

“Regions of relatively empty space called cosmic voids are everywhere in the universe, and scientists believe studying their size, shape and spread across the cosmos could help them understand dark matter, dark energy and other big mysteries.

To use voids in this way, astronomers must map these regions in detail—a project that is just beginning.

Shown here are voids discovered by the Sloan Digital Sky Survey (SDSS), along with a selection of 16 previously named voids. Scientists expect voids to be evenly distributed throughout space—the lack of voids in some regions on the globe simply reflects SDSS’s sky coverage.”

voids

Sofia Contarini, Alice Pisani, Nico Hamaus, Federico Marulli Lauro Moscardini & Marco Baldi (2023) Cosmological Constraints from the BOSS DR12 Void Size Function Astrophysical Journal 953:46.

Nico Hamaus, Alice Pisani, Jin-Ah Choi, Guilhem Lavaux, Benjamin D. Wandelt & Jochen Weller (2020) Journal of Cosmology and Astroparticle Physics 2020:023.

Sloan Digital Sky Survey Data Release 12

constellation figures

Alan MacRobert (Sky & Telescope), Paulina Rowicka/Martin Krzywinski (revisions & Microscopium)

stars

Hoffleit & Warren Jr. (1991) The Bright Star Catalog, 5th Revised Edition (Preliminary Version).

cosmology

H0 = 67.4 km/(Mpc·s), Ωm = 0.315, Ωv = 0.685. Planck collaboration Planck 2018 results. VI. Cosmological parameters (2018).

Martin Krzywinski | contact | Canada's Michael Smith Genome Sciences CentreBC Cancer Research CenterBC CancerPHSA
Google whack “vicissitudinal corporealization”
{ 10.9.234.151 }